« アルミ水素化物を用いた水素貯蔵タンク | トップページ | 267回目の献血 »



Science Daily のニュース(2/20)から。Laser Light Can Detect Potential Diseases Via Breath Samples

By blasting a person's breath with laser light, scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado at Boulder have shown that they can detect molecules that may be markers for diseases like asthma or cancer.

While the new technique has yet to be tested in clinical trials, it may someday allow doctors to screen people for certain diseases simply by sampling their breath, according to the research team from JILA, a joint institute of NIST and CU-Boulder. "This technique can give a broad picture of many different molecules in the breath all at once," said Jun Ye, a fellow of JILA and NIST who led the research.

Known as optical frequency comb spectroscopy, the technique is powerful enough to sort through all the molecules in human breath and sensitive enough to distinguish rare molecules that may be biomarkers for specific diseases, said Ye.

When breathing, people inhale a complex mixture of gases, including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and traces of other gases like carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and methane, said Ye, an adjoint professor of physics at CU-Boulder. Exhaled breath contains less oxygen, more carbon dioxide and a rich collection of more than a thousand types of other molecules, most of which are present only in trace amounts.

Just as bad breath can indicate dental problems, excess methylamine may signal liver and kidney disease, ammonia may be a sign of renal failure, elevated acetone levels can indicate diabetes and nitric oxide levels can be used to diagnose asthma, Ye said.

When many breath molecules are detected simultaneously, highly reliable, disease-specific information can be collected, said Ye. Asthma, for example, can be detected much more reliably when carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen peroxide are all detected simultaneously with nitric oxide.

The optical frequency comb is a very precise laser for measuring different colors, or frequencies, of light, said Ye. Each comb line, or "tooth," is tuned to a distinct frequency of a particular molecule's vibration or rotation, and the entire comb covers a broad spectral range -- much like a rainbow of colors -- that can identify thousands of different molecules.

Laser light can detect and distinguish specific molecules because different molecules vibrate and rotate at certain distinct resonant frequencies that depend on their composition and structure, he said. He likened the concept to different radio stations broadcasting on separate radio frequencies.

The optical frequency comb was developed in the 1990s by Ye's JILA, NIST and CU-Boulder colleague John L. "Jan" Hall and Theodor W. Hansch of Germany's Max-Planck Institute, who shared the 2005 Nobel Prize in physics with Roy J. Glauber for their work.





« アルミ水素化物を用いた水素貯蔵タンク | トップページ | 267回目の献血 »






この記事へのトラックバック一覧です: 吐息を分析して病気をみつける:

» 分析調査隊 [分析適当サイト集]
分析のリンク集形式のサイト情報です。の情報収集にお役立てください。 [続きを読む]

受信: 2008/02/24 05:41

« アルミ水素化物を用いた水素貯蔵タンク | トップページ | 267回目の献血 »